Showing posts with label Linear Regression. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Linear Regression. Show all posts

Linear Regression using ChatGPT

[Originally published on March 7, 2023]

The ChatGPT is a large language model (LLM) from OpenAI that was released a few months ago. Since then, it has created lots of excitement in terms of a whole range of possible uses for it, lots and lots of hype, and a lot of concern about harm that might result from its use. Within five days after its release, the ChatGPT had over one million users and that number has been growing since then. The hype arising from ChatGPT is not surprising; the field of AI from its inception has been hyped. One just need to be reminded of the Noble Prize winner Herbert Simon’s statement “Machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work that a man can do” made in 1965. Several concerns about the potential harm due to ChatGPT’s use have been expressed. It has been found to generate inaccurate information as facts that is presented very convincingly. Its capabilities are so good that Elon Musk recently tweeted “ChatGPT is scary good. We are not far from dangerously strong AI.”

Since ChatGPT’s release, many companies and researchers have been playing with its capabilities and this has given rise to what is being characterized as Generative AI. It has been used to write essays, emails, and even scientific articles, prepare travel plans, solve math problems, write code and create websites among many other usages. Many companies have incorporated it into their Apps. And of course, Microsoft has integrated it into its Bing search engine.

Given all the excitement about it, I decided to use it to build a linear regression model. The result of my interaction with the ChatGPT are presented below. The complete interaction was over in a minute or so; primarily slowed by my one finger typing.

So, all it took to build the regression model was to feed the data and let the ChatGPT know the predictor variables. Looks like a great tool. But like any other tool, it needs to be used in a constructive manner. I hope you like this simple demo of ChatGPT’s capabilities. I encourage you to try on your own. OpenAI is free but you will need to register.

LLaMA 2 and its Symbolic Regression Explanation

On July 17, a new family of AI models, LLaMA 2 was announced by Meta. LLaMA 2 is trained on a mix of publicly available data. According to Meta LLaMA 2 performs significantly better than the previous generation of LLaMA models. Two flavors of the model: LLaMA 2 and LLaMA 2-Chat, a model fine tuned for two-way conversations, were released. Each flavor further has three versions with the parameters ranging from 7 billions to 70 billions. Meta is also freely releasing the code and data behind the model for  researchers to build upon and improve the technology.

There are several ways to access LLaMA 2 for development work; you can download it from HuggingFace or access it via Microsoft Azure or Amazon SageMaker. For those interested in interacting with the LLaMA 2-Chat version, you can do so by visiting, a chatbot model demo hosted by the venture capitalist Andreessen Horowitz. This is the route I took to interact with LLaMA 2-Chat.

Since I was reading an excellent paper on symbolic regression, I decided to query LLaMA 2-Chat about this topic. Before I show my chat with the model, let me explain symbolic regression if you are not familiar with it. In the traditional linear regression, the model form, linear or polynomial etc., is assumed and the coefficients/parameters of the model are determined to get the best possible accuracy. In contrast, the symbolic regression involves searching a space of analytical expressions with the corresponding parameter values to best model a given dataset. 

I started off by asking if LLaMA-2 Chat is better than GPT-4. I followed it up by asking about symbolic regression as shown below. 

The answer provided was not specific. So I asked LLaMA 2 for a concrete example. This resulted in the conversation shown below.

Clearly, the example provided is that of linear regression and not of symbolic regression. Pointing this out to LLaMA 2 resulted in the following conversation, where again I had to point out that symbolic regression searching for different functions.

As you can see, LLaMA 2 had difficulty explaining symbolic regression and needed to be prompted for making mistakes. Next, I decided to go to ChatGPT to see what kind of response it would produce. Below is the ChatGPT output.

As you can see, ChatGPT was clear in explaining symbolic regression and even mentioned about the use of genetic algorithms and genetic programming that are key to symbolic regression.

So my take is to stick with Chat-GPT for getting help on topics of interest. LLaMA 2 is lacking in providing clear explanations. Of course, my take is based only on conversation about one topic only.